HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
HCI techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, etc. are required. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of the interaction between people and computers. Such interaction is mainly done at the user interface. One of the major concerns of professional practitioners in the field of HCI is the design of interactive computing systems for human use.
Architecture of any HCI system is identified by…
- Number of inputs and outputs in system.
- Diversity of inputs and outputs in terms of modality. [Mode]
- Working of this diverse input and out for interaction purpose.
- Design of interface HCI system can be into 2 categories
The second sense in which HCI moved beyond the desktop was through the growing influence of the Internet on computing and on society. Starting in the mid-1980s, email emerged as one of the most important HCI applications, but ironically, email made computers and networks into communication channels; people were not interacting with computers, they were interacting with other people through computers. Tools and applications to support collaborative activity now include instant messaging, wikis, blogs, online forums, social networking, social bookmarking and tagging services, media spaces and other collaborative workspaces, recommender and collaborative filtering systems, and a wide variety of online groups and communities. New paradigms and mechanisms for collective activity have emerged including online auctions, reputation systems, soft sensors, and crowd sourcing. This area of HCI, now called social computing, is one of the most rapidly developing.
A huge and expanding variety of social network services are part of everyday computing experiences for many people. Online communities, such as Linux communities and GitHub, employ social computing to produce high-quality knowledge work.
The third way that HCI moved beyond the desktop was through the continual, and occasionally explosive diversification in the ecology of computing devices. Before desktop applications were consolidated, new kinds of device contexts emerged, notably laptops, which began to appear in the early 1980s, and handhelds, which began to appear in the mid-1980s.Desktop computing is still very important, though the desktop habitat has been transformed by the wide use of laptops.
To a considerable extent, the desktop itself has moved off the desktop. The focus of HCI has moved beyond the desktop, and its focus will continue to move. HCI is a technology area, and it is ineluctably driven to frontiers of technology and application possibility. The special value and contribution of HCI is that it will investigate, develop, and harness those new areas of possibility not merely as technologies or designs, but as means for enhancing human activity and experience.
HCI is about understanding and critically evaluating the interactive technologies people use and experience. But it is also about how those interactions evolve as people appropriate technologies, as their expectations, concepts and skills develop, and as they articulate new needs, new interests, and new visions and agendas for interactive technology.
Reciprocally, HCI is about understanding contemporary human practices and aspirations, including how those activities are embodied, elaborated, but also perhaps limited by current infrastructures and tools. HCI is about understanding practices and activity specifically as requirements and design possibilities envisioning and bringing into being new technology, new tools and environments. It is about exploring design spaces, and realizing new systems and devices through the co-evolution of activity and artifacts, the task-artifact cycle.
Human activities implicitly articulate needs, preferences and design visions. Artifacts are designed in response, but inevitably do more than merely respond. Through the course of their adoption and appropriation, new designs provide new possibilities for action and interaction. Ultimately, this activity articulates further human needs, preferences, and design visions.A second implication of the task-artifact cycle is that continual exploration of new applications and application domains, new designs and design paradigms, new experiences, and new activities should remain highly prized in HCI. We may have the sense that we know where we are going today, but given the apparent rate of co-evolution in activity and artifacts, our effective look-ahead is probably less than we think.
Moreover, since we are in effect constructing a future trajectory, and not just finding it, the cost of missteps is high. The co-evolution of activity and artifacts evidences strong hysteresis, that is to say, effects of past co-evolutionary adjustments persist far into the future. For example, many people struggle every day with operating systems and core productivity applications whose designs were evolutionary reactions to misanalyses from two or more decades ago. Of course, it is impossible to always be right with respect to values and criteria that will emerge and coalesce in the future, but we should at least be mindful that very consequential missteps are possible.
The Drift Table is an interactive coffee table; aerial views of England and Wales are displayed the porthole on top; placing and moving objects on the table causes the aerial imagery to scroll. This design is intended to provoke reaction and challenge thinking about domestic technologies.
- Analysis: Understand the users and there tasks
- Design: Apply this understanding during design activities
- Evaluate: Validate design decisions to see whether people can actually use the system.
Important study of HCIis Value Sensitive Design VSD.
Value Sensitive Design is an approach to the design of information technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process.One important focus of VSD is consideration of values that center on human well being, human dignity, justice, welfare, and human rights.Specific values include but are not limited to trust, accountability, freedom from bias, access, autonomy, privacy, sustainability, and consent.VSD's interactional theory, direct and indirect stakeholder analyses, value tension analyses, and tripartite methodology of conceptual, technical, and empirical investigations.The theory and methods of VSD are to be used in consort with other existing technical and design methods.Ultimately, VSD requires that we broaden the goals and criteria for judging the quality of information systems to include those that advance human value
Human-Computer Interaction is an important part of systems design. Quality of system depends on how it is represented and used by users. Therefore, enormous amount of attention has been paid to better designs of HCI. The new direction of research is to replace common regular methods of interaction with intelligent, adaptive, multimodal, natural methods. Ambient intelligence or ubiquitous computing which is called the Third Wave is trying to embed the technology into the environment so to make it more natural and invisible at the same time. Virtual reality is also an advancing field of HCI which can be the common interface of the future.